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  • 主頁 > 健康教育 >

    飲用水衛生

    時間:2014-08-12 15:17 點擊:

     

    1、飲用水的衛生要求有哪些? 
    飲用水的衛生要求包括:
    ⑴不含病原微生物,水質對人體無害;
    ⑵無色透明,無異味,不含肉眼可見的雜物。
    2、保護水源的主要措施?
    ⑴要有防護設施;
    ⑵廁所、糞池、垃圾堆遠離30米以外;
    ⑶水源上游1000米以內排入的水流應符合國家標準。
    3、井水應該怎樣消毒?
        井水中含有許多致病菌,正常人如果使用了未經消毒的井水時,就會受到致病微生物的侵襲,因此,在使用井水之前應該進行消毒。如果將井水打入儲水器,可以按照每200斤水加入一粒漂白精片(或泡騰片)的方法進行消毒。若直接使用井水時可以采取下面2種方法進行消毒。
    持續消毒法:將漂白粉或漂白精片裝入礦泉水瓶中,大約放入2/3的量,然后在瓶的上半部及靠近瓶底處各戳4~5個小洞,用繩子懸掛在水面或距水面0.5米范圍內,通過提水時的震動作用,促使消毒劑緩慢釋放入水中。在每次使用井水時先震動幾下,然后再取水使用。每周更換瓶中的消毒劑。
    一次性消毒法:每日根據用水情況,對所使用的井水進行消毒,首先計算水井的水量。3.14×半徑×半徑×水深=噸數。然后按照每噸水加入6~8克(約一小湯匙左右)漂白粉,先將漂白粉倒入容器加水攪拌,然后取上清液倒入井中(殘渣不能倒入)。用打水桶振蕩數次后使用。
    5、如何使用漂白粉消毒飲用水?
    一些農村仍直接飲用井水、水庫水、溪水。這類水源的水質達不到衛生要求,如一但被污染,可引發腸道傳染病的暴發、流行。一般在農村家庭中,宜使用漂白粉(精片)進行消毒。
        漂白粉含有殺菌能力很強的有效氯。一般漂白粉含有效氯25%一30%,其消毒方法為:將一定量漂白粉(精片)的上清液倒入水井或水缸中,按每噸水加漂白粉10克(一陶器湯匙)左右或每擔水(約50公斤)一片(小)精片。先將所需的漂白粉放在碗或盆內用少許水調成糊狀,其次再加水攪勻,澄清后取上清液倒入水井或缸中(但漂白粉有殘渣),用水桶上下震蕩幾次或水瓢攪拌數分鐘,待30分鐘后可取用。水中帶有的氯味,對人體無害,盡管放心。
    水量估計:水井口徑(直徑)80cm、約4只筒為1噸;水井口徑(直徑)100cm、約3只筒為1噸。
    5、使用漂白粉應注意哪些事項?
    漂白粉消毒還應注意幾個問題:①水溫高,殺菌效果好,如水溫太低,可適當增加漂白粉用量。②水混濁,會影響殺菌效果。對混濁水應先沉淀或過濾后再消毒。③水源不同,漂白粉用量也不同,可按下列順序增加漂白粉用量:深井水——淺井水。④特別要注意:千萬不要用漂白粉干撒。

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