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  • 主頁 > 健康教育 >

    病毒性肝炎

    時間:2014-08-12 15:15 點擊:

     

    病毒性肝炎是由肝炎病毒引起的以肝臟病變為主的全身性疾病,按病原不同可分為甲型、乙型、丙型、丁型及戊型,但臨床表現基本相似,以疲乏、肝大、肝功能異常為主要表現,部分病人出現黃疸。根據病程長短及臨床表現輕重臨床分型為急性肝炎、慢性肝炎、重型肝炎和淤膽型肝炎四型。甲型及戊型主要表現為急性肝炎,而丙型、丁型及乙型主要表現慢性肝炎,甲、乙、丙、丁、戊各型肝炎均可引起重型肝炎。肝炎治療以適當休息、合理營養為主,可輔以適當的藥物治療。應防止過勞和精神刺激,避免飲酒和使用有肝損害的藥物,并注意防治各種感染,已免病情加重。
    1、甲型和戊型肝炎通過食物、水和日常生活接觸傳播,預防重點應做好“三管一滅”,注意個人衛生;甲型肝炎流行期間可接種甲型肝炎減毒活疫苗,對接觸者可接種丙種球蛋白或胎盤球蛋白。
    2、乙型、丙型及丁型肝炎主要經血液、體液、母嬰傳播,預防重點則在于加強血液、血制品和醫療器械管理;對乙型肝炎易感者接種乙肝疫苗,尤其母親HBsAg 陽性或同時有HBeAg陽性者的新生兒。
    3、預防控制乙肝宣傳教育知識要點:
    (1)乙肝是一種危害大的嚴重傳染病,但可以通過接種乙肝疫苗和其它措施預防。
    (2)乙肝通過血液、母嬰和性接觸三種途徑傳播。日常生活和工作接觸不會傳播乙肝病毒。
    (3)新生兒接種乙肝疫苗是預防乙肝的關鍵。新生兒出生后要及時并全程接種三針乙肝疫苗。
    (4)新生兒乙肝疫苗接種已經納入國家免疫規劃管理,免費接種。
    (5)推廣新生兒以外重點高危人群接種乙肝疫苗。
    (6)避免不必要的注射、輸血和使用血液制品,使用安全自毀型注射器或經過嚴格消毒的器具,杜絕醫源性傳播。
    (7)乙肝病毒攜帶者在工作和生活能力上同健康人沒有區別。由于乙肝傳播途徑的特殊性,乙肝病毒攜帶者在生活、工作、學習和社會活動中不對周圍人群和環境構成威脅,可以正常學習、就業和生活。
    (8)目前,乙肝病毒感染尚無理想的特異性治療藥物,醫學科技領域亦尚未攻克有些媒體廣告宣傳的“轉陰”“根治”等難題。
    (9)乙肝病毒攜帶者應定期接受醫學觀察和隨訪。乙肝患者要規范治療、定期檢查。
    (10)乙肝威脅著每一個人和每一個家庭,影響著社會的發展和穩定。預防乙肝是全社會的責任。

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