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  • 主頁 > 健康教育 >

    霍亂

    時間:2014-08-12 15:15 點擊:

     

    1、什么是霍亂? 
    霍亂是由O1群或O139群霍亂弧菌引起的急性腸道傳染病,具有發病急、傳播快、波及面廣的特點,是我國《傳染病防治法》規定的兩種甲類傳染病之一,也是《國際衛生檢疫條例》規定國際檢疫的三種傳染病之一。
    2、感染霍亂后有哪些癥狀? 
    大多數情況下,感染只造成輕度腹瀉或根本沒有癥狀,典型的癥狀表現為劇烈的無痛性水樣腹瀉,嚴重的一天腹瀉十幾次。感染霍亂后,如果治療不及時或不恰當,會引起嚴重脫水導致死亡。 
    3、如何發現自己感染霍亂? 
    有腹瀉癥狀,尤其是劇烈的無痛性水樣腹瀉,應馬上到醫院就診,并做霍亂弧菌的培養檢查。與霍亂感染者一起就餐或密切接觸的人也應采集糞便或肛拭檢查,以確定是否感染。 
    4、感染霍亂后應如何做? 
    霍亂傳染性很強,一旦發現感染霍亂,無論是輕型還是帶菌者,均應隔離治療。停服抗菌藥物后,連續二天糞便培養未檢出霍亂弧菌者才可解除隔離。感染霍亂后,不接受隔離治療,屬于違反《中華人民共和國傳染病防治法》的行為,造成傳給別人的,會受到法律制裁。另外病人和帶菌者要配合疾病預防控制中心工作人員做好流行病學調查、密切接觸者的采樣、家里疫點的消毒等工作。 
    5、霍亂怎么傳播? 
    霍亂通過飲用未煮熟的水,進食生的或未煮熟的食物(尤其是海水產品),生熟食品通過共用同一砧板、餐具等引起交叉污染,接觸霍亂病人、帶菌者排泄物污染的手和物品,進食通過蒼蠅污染的食物等傳播。 
    6、公眾如何預防霍亂? 
    預防霍亂的方法比較簡單。主要是“把好一張口”,預防病從口入。做到五要五不要:
    五要:飯前便后要洗手,買回海產要煮熟,隔餐食物要熱透,生熟食品要分開,出現癥狀要就診。 
    五不要:生水未煮不要喝,無牌餐飲不光顧,腐爛食品不要吃,暴飲暴食不可取,未消毒(霍亂污染)物品不要碰。 

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