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  • 主頁 > 健康教育 >

    傷寒與副傷寒的預防

    時間:2014-08-12 15:14 點擊:

     

    1、什么是傷寒和副傷寒?
    傷寒和副傷寒由傷寒或副傷寒桿菌引起的一種急性腸道傳染病。傳染源是病人和帶菌者,多發于夏、秋季。兒童和青壯年發病較多。甲型副傷寒可以通過生活用水、食物、蒼蠅、蟑螂接觸等傳播引起流行。其中通過水源傳播的機會最大,是目前最重要的傳播途徑。該病菌可以隨著病人或健康帶菌者的糞便排出體外,生存能力很強,可在江、河、湖、塘水中存活1—3周,在糞坑或廁所中存活1—2個月,而且非常耐寒,在冰凍的環境可存活幾個月或更久。
        傷寒和副傷寒存在于病人和帶菌者的糞便中,發病后第2—4周由于持續排菌,所以傳染性最強。恢復期及恢復后仍可繼續由糞便排出細菌。細菌通過水源、海產品、瓜果、蔬菜、食具或蒼蠅、蟑螂感染健康人。
    2、傷寒和副傷寒的癥狀
    開始有全身不適。類似感冒癥狀,食欲不好,頭痛等,發熱,5—6日體溫可達40℃,持續不退,表情淡漠,前胸和腹部上可有紅色疹,肝脾腫大,有輕度壓痛,重時可有腸出血、腸穿孔、心肌炎等合并癥。有合并癥者死亡率高。
    3、得了傷寒副傷寒怎么辦?
    (1)一旦得了傷寒、副傷寒應及時住院隔離治療,千萬不要到村級醫療站治療,以免貽誤治療時機,造成更加嚴重的并發癥,不要以為無關緊要,因為該病屬于傳染病,很容易引起家人的感染。
    (2)傷寒、副傷寒患者,可以到我縣腸道傳染病防治中心(縣紅十字醫院)接受政府補助治療。入院時只需繳納1200元,其余費用由縣財政統一支付,治愈出院。
    (3)積極配合醫生的治療,傷寒、副傷寒平均治愈時間是15天左右,一定要堅持全程治療,未全程或不規范用藥會造成慢性帶菌,延長排菌時間,對家人和社會造成更大的危害。特別是輕型病人,要堅持用藥2周。
    (4)病人的碗筷、臉巾、牙杯及其他日常生活用品與家人分開使用。
    (5)病人的大便、嘔吐物要加1/5量的漂白粉消毒后倒入糞坑或廁所。
    (6)病人不到街頭飲食餐點用餐,以防傳染給他人。家人照顧病人時,不要與病人共用生活用品。
    4、如何預防傷寒與副傷寒?
    傷寒副傷寒都是腸道傳染病,都是經口引起的傳播,因此,預防該傳染病主要是做好預防“病從口入”關。主要應注意以下幾點:
    (1)注意飲食衛生、不喝生水、不吃不干凈的食物,不用不衛生的餐具,生吃瓜果要使用自來水清洗,無自來水,需削皮后食用。
    (2)不吃涼拌食物,少擺席聚餐。不吃腐敗食物和腌制食物。
    (3)不到街頭不衛生飲食攤點就餐。
    (4)飲用安全衛生水。使用自來水,使用井水要消毒。集中供水要做好每日消毒。
    (5)養成良好的衛生習慣,飯前便后洗手。
    (6)搞好糞便管理,不用新鮮糞便施肥,糞便應統一進行無害化處理。
    (7)不與病人共用日常生活用品,避免同病人共用食具等。
    (8)搞好室內外環境衛生,消滅蒼蠅、蟑螂等媒介生物。
    (9)發現傷寒、副傷寒病人做到早報告、早隔離、早治療。嚴防傳染給健康人。

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